What is Geriatric Nutrition
Old age is one of the vulnerable and prone stages in terms of health status. It requires lot of awareness, motivation and support, physically, mentally and socially. Nutrition is essential determining factor of elderly mass specifically over the age of 60 years. Geriatric nutrition has been always underreported, though everyone wants to make the senescence easy. Adequate nutrition is always important for better ageing because Malnutrition leads to decreased independence due to physical weakness and muscle wasting. As people age, adequate nutrition propels the maintenance of health, physical performance and psychological wellbeing. Immunity weakens with proceeding age which is influenced by lack of nutrients and differed dietary habits.
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Physiological changes during aging
- Body composition changes as fat replaces muscle, in a process called sacropenia.
- Basal metabolic rate (BMR) declines about 5% per decade during adulthood.
- Body water decreases with the drop in caloric needs and lowered protein reserves.
- with progressive age digestive hormones decreases and so the enzymes
- A progressive drop in bone mass starts when people are in their 30s and 40s
- Memory impairment caused by various types of dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, or other neurological diseases rises markedly.
- Overweight and obese individuals are at an enhanced risk of co-morbidities including type 2 diabetes, fatty liver disease, gallstones, high blood cholesterol and triglycerides, orthopaedic disorders (Osteoarthritis), hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases, certain cancers and psycho-social problems.
Nutritional requirement in aging
- Calorie requirement decreases with age, although individuals vary greatly
- The antioxidant vitamins, vitamin E, carotenoids and vitamin C, continue to receive attention because of their potential to improve immune functions.
- Need for vitamin A decreases and that of riboflavin, vitamin B6 and B12 and zinc increases.
- Body movements are essential in elderly in the form of exercises like walk, yoga etc regularly.
Elderly should incorporate small frequent meals at regular intervals. Gap between two meals should not be less than 3 hours. Emphasis should be on not skipping breakfast and having early dinner choose healthy snack options. Follow the healthy dietary guidelines while eating out. Boiled / steamed / roasted / grilled cooking methods should be preferred over frying Alcohol is not under recommendation.
- Variety of whole grains, millets and pulses should be included in the daily diet.
- Two Glasses (1 glass = 250 ml) of low fat milk and equivalent milk products should be included in the diet.
- About 4 – 5 servings of fruits and vegetables (all colors) should be included. Encourage intake of salads.
- 15 – 20 g of healthy oil (low Saturated Fatty Acids and Trans Fatty Acids) is recommended. Promote alternate oils. Substitute nuts and oilseeds in place of fats and oils.
- For non-vegetarians egg white, lean chicken and fish is recommended.
Food & Wellness Geriatric Nutrition Programme
Food‘n’Wellness helps you to Emphasize on healthy traditional diet, consumption of available protective foods; Minimize or combine foods containing hidden animal fats (fatty meat, full-fat dairy products, some fast/processed food, and hydrogenated plant fats (some fast/processed food, commercial cakes/biscuits); Limit visible oil consumption; Enjoy food and eating in the company of others, but avoid the regular use of energy dense (poor nutrient content) celebratory foods and beverages which are high in fat and or sugar.
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At Food & Wellness we believe that every individual is different and needs special attention. We adapt our programme to your existing lifestyle and try not to change anything drastically so you can easily transition. Over a period of time we ensure results and help you restore your health.
Geriatric Nutrition Articles
Aging is one of the most natural things to happen to us. No matter how healthy or fit we are, we all will age. And as we grow older, we often find it difficult to do things that we have almost always taken for granted. Not being able to sleep properly is one such problem that is widely seen among the elderly. Among all other sleep disorders, the most common is insomnia, that has several medical and psychiatric repercussions.
Sarcopenia has become exceedingly common among older people. Almost 10% of adults above 50 are affected by it. Sarcopenia is characterized by muscle loss, that can decrease both the quality of life, as well as life expectancy. However, the good news is that sarcopenia can be prevented and reversed in certain cases.
Figuratively speaking, growing old is inevitable. That each day will add up to make months and years and that each progressing year will add up to an age older than the previous, is unavoidable.